A view of illegally deforested land from a helicopter belonging to Brazil's federal environmental protection agency
Last December, Earthsight reported
on Operation Flying Rivers, a two-year criminal investigation in Brazil that
resulted in the unprecedented detention of a powerful crime boss in July 2016
and uncovered a sophisticated criminal network responsible for illegally clearing
over 30,000 hectares of public forests in the state of Para for cattle ranching
and soy and rice cultivation.
The head of this criminal network is Antônio José Junqueira
Vilela Filho. When they were arrested in June and July 2016, Vilela Filho, also
known as Jotinha, and members of his family – including his sisters Ana Luiza
and Ana Paula, and brother-in-law, Ricardo Viacava – were charged with illegal
deforestation, land grabbing, falsification of property titles to claim private
ownership of land in protected areas, conspiracy to commit crime, money
laundering and slave labour.
Jotinha, who comes from a powerful family of cattle
ranchers, and his associates ran a sophisticated operation that involved cells
on the ground, shell companies and IT teams hacking government databases.
Flying Rivers was unprecedented in Brazil due to the arrest of a leading
agribusiness figure who led a large criminal network responsible for illegal
deforestation. Jotinha is seen by many as one of the biggest forest destroyers
in the history of the Amazon.
Before the end of the year, Vilela Filho and his relatives
were all out of prison. Last week, Mongabay reported
that court cases against them are ongoing, but no one knows when trials will
take place or what the verdict will be.
Although the land occupied by Jotinha’s network is
officially embargoed, Mongabay has found that workers employed by the gang “are
still fattening cattle on these properties”. Mongabay summarises the current
situation as follows: “the defendants are not in jail, but await trial; large
past fines against them have not been paid; the embargo on land use is not
being respected; and, most seriously, the public land that [Jotinha] illegally
occupied is still indisputably in his gang’s hands”.
The embargo –
imposed by IBAMA, the Brazilian environmental enforcement agency – means that
Jotinha’s properties in question are banned from any economic activities –
including raising livestock or cultivating crops – due to the environmental and
other crimes committed. IBAMA has confirmed to Mongabay that the gang will not
be able to sell cattle fattened in embargoed areas or get legal titles to the
However, as Mongabay points out, laundering cattle is a
relatively easy operation. Although several of the largest slaughterhouses in
Brazil have pledged not
to buy cattle from embargoed ranches, they only usually check the last
supplier. So livestock fattened in an illegal ranch only needs to be taken to a
legal property before being sold on to the slaughterhouses.
After speaking to people living in the region, Mongabay has
noted that the properties are widely seen as still belonging to Vilela Filho
and his associates, who could still be able to sell this land on the open
market, regardless of whether they have legal titles to it. Mongabay states
that Terra Legal, the federal programme responsible for returning illegally
appropriated public land to state ownership, is not doing its job to reclaim
these properties and put an end to Jotinha’s illegal activities.
Mongabay concludes that Operation Flying Rivers “has not
been able to put an end to the most serious problem: those deforesting public
lands can still keep that land, use it, make hefty profits from it, and maybe
not face much punishment”.